Snakebite Envenomation

          In snakebite envenomation, the clinical presentation of a patient represents a complex syndrome resulted from the body responses to the pharmacological actions of different components in snake venom. Venom toxic effects have often been conveniently classified as neurotoxic, hemotoxic, cardiotoxic, nephrotoxic, myotoxic, etc. based on the predominant clinical effect of particular venom. Organ- or system-based descriptions as such receive criticism at times that the classification oversimplifies the complexity of venom effects and does not represent the interaction of various toxins on tissues of different organs. Nonetheless, the descriptions suggest the prominent clinical syndrome of particular snakebite and hence have a practical value in management, for instance, the preparation of intubation equipment, blood products for transfusion, and dialysis facility in anticipation of the likely pathological outcome from the bite of a particular species. On the other hand, laboratory characterizations of venom toxicities can never be oversimplified, and it demands multiple disciplinary approaches, involving both in vitro and in vivo techniques.

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